Criteria met: High volume (globally threatened)
Principal trade term to the EU: teeth, tusks, trophies
Percentage of global trade to the EU: 12%
Principal source: wild
Top EU importer: Germany, Spain
Top Trading Partner: Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
CITES Appendix: II
IUCN Status: Vulnerable
EU imports in 2010 primarily comprised wild-sourced teeth, tusks and trophies traded as purposes ‘H’, ‘P’ and ‘T’. Trade in wild-sourced trophy items equates to approximately 256 individuals, including 130 trophies, 745 teeth (equivalent to 63 individuals, when the conversion factor of 12 teeth to one hippopotamus is applied), 95 tusks (equivalent to 48 individuals, when the conversion factor of two ‘tusks’ to one hippopotamus is applied), 11 feet (three individuals), six skulls, three skins, two bodies and one tail. A permit analysis revealed that three items were imported on the same permit as other trophy items, possibly reducing the number of animals involved to 253. The total number of trophies imported (including trophy items with conversion factors applied if appropriate) decreased by half between 2009 and 2010.
Imports of wild-sourced trophies principally originated in Zambia (27%), South Africa (26%), Tanzania (19%), and Zimbabwe (18%), with tusks originating in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The SRG formed a positive opinion for specimens from South Africa and Zambia on 18/07/2001 and confirmed positive opinions for Zimbabwe on 29/10/2001 and Tanzania on 29/02/2008.
The species was selected under the CITES Review of Significant Trade following CoP14 at the 23rd meeting of the Animals Committee. Tanzania and Zambia, amongst other range States, were removed from the review at the 24th meeting of the Animals Committee, followed by South Africa at the 25th meeting of the Animals Committee. Mozambique remains a country of Possible Concern, with information requested on the basis of non-detriment findings and management.